रंगमंच तथा विभिन्न कला माध्यमों पर केंद्रित सांस्कृतिक दल "दस्तक" की ब्लॉग पत्रिका.

शुक्रवार, 23 मार्च 2012

साम्राज्यवादी वैशिकरण के दौर में भगत सिंह के विचारों की प्रासंगिकता : अर्जुन प्रसाद सिंह


जन्म: २८ सितम्बर, १९०७
शहादत : २३ मार्च, १९३१
 
सामाजिक कार्यकर्त्ता अर्जुन प्रसाद सिंह का महत्वपूर्ण आलेख मंडली के पाठकों के लिए 
^vaxzstksa dh tM+s fgy pqdh gSaA os 15 lkyksa esa pys tk;saxs] le>kSrk gks tk;sxk] ij blls turk dks dksbZ ykHk ugha gksxkA dkQh lky vQjk&rQjh esa chrsaxsA mlds ckn yksxksa dks esjh ;kn vk;sxhA*
'kghn&,&vkte Hkxr flag us ;g ckr 1931 esa Qkalh ds Qans ij yVdk;s tkus ds dqN gh fnu igys dgh FkhA mudk vuqeku lgh fudyk vkSj djhc 16 lky ckn 1947 esa ,d le>kSrk gks x;kA bl le>kSrs ds rgr vaxztksa dks Hkkjr NksM+uk iM+k vkSj ns'k dh lÙkk dh ckxMksj ^xksjs gkFkksa ls Hkwjs gkFkks esa* vk xbZA blds ckn lpeqp ^vQjk&rQjh esa* dkQh lky&djhc N% n'kd chr pqds gSaA vc ns'k dh 'kksf"kr&ihfM+r turk ,oa muds lPps jktuhfrd izfrfuf/k;ksa dks Hkxr flag dh ;kn T;knk lrkus yxh gSA
bl lky ns'k dh reke ns'k HkDr] tuoknh o ØkfUrdkjh rkdrsa Hkxr flag] jktxq: o lq[knso dh 'kgknr dh 81वांa o"kZxkaB euk jgh gSaA [kkldj] ØkfUrdkjh 'kfDr;ka bl volj ij dsoy vuq"Bkfud dk;ZØe vk;ksftr ugha dj jgha gSa] tSlk fd iatkc ljdkj gj lky 23 ekpZ dks mDr vej 'kghnksa ds gqlSuhokyk fLFkr lekf/k&LFky ij djrh gSA os Hkxr flag ds ØkfUrdkjh fopkjksa dks ns'k dh 'kksf"kr&ihfM+r o fegurd'k turk ds chp ys tkus ds fy, fofHkUu izdkj ds tu dk;ZØe vk;ksftr dj jgh gSaA
Hkxr flag us dgk Fkk& ^os ¼vaxzst½ lksprs gSa fd esjs 'kjhj dks u"V dj] bl ns'k esa lqjf{kr jg tk;saxsA ;g mudh xyrQgeh gSA os eq>s ekj ldrsa gSa] ysfdu esjs fopkjksa dks ughaA os esjs 'kjhj dks VqdM+s&VqdM+s dj ldrs gSa] ysfdu os esjh vkadk{kkvksa dks nck ugha ldrsA* lpeqp gekjs ns'k esa u vaxzst lqjf{kr jg lds vkSj u gh Hkxr flag ds fopkjksa o vkdka{kkvksa dks nck;k tk ldkA bfrgkl lk{kh gS fd ^ejk gqvk Hkxr flag thfor Hkxr flag ls T;knk [krjukd* lkfcr gqvk vkSj muds ØkfUrdkjh fopkjksa ls ukStoku ih<+h ^engks'k* vkSj ^vktknh o ØkfUr ds fy, ikxy* gksrh jghA og ykfB;ka&xksfy;ka [kkrh jgh vkSj 'kghnksa dh drkjsa ltkrh jghA
1947 ds lÙkk gLrkUrj.k ;k vkdkfjd vktknh ds ckn turk ds O;kid fgLls dks yxk Fkk fd ns'k o muds thou dh cngkyh :dsxh vkSj le`f) o [kqf'k;kyh dk ,d u;k nkSj 'kq: gksxkA ysfdu ek= dqN lkyksa esa gh ;g vglkl gks x;k fd tks fnYyh dh xn~nh ij cSBs gSa os muds izfrfuf/k ugha gSaA mUgksaus ns'k o turk ds fodkl dh tks vkfFkZd uhfr;ka viukbZa vkSj mudk tks urhtk lkeus vk;k] mlls lkQ irk py x;k fd os cM+s tehUnkjksas o cM+s iwathifr;ksa ds lkFk&lkFk lkezkT;okn ds Hkh fgrS"kh gSaA mudk eq[; mn~ns'; fegurd'k turk dh xk<+h dekbZ dks ywVuk gS vkSj 'kks"kd&'kkld oxks± dks ekyk&eky djuk gSA Hkxr flag ns'k ds fodkl dh bl izfØ;k dks vPNh rjg le>rs FksA rHkh rks mUgksaus dgk Fkk fd ^dkaxzsl ftl rjg vkUnksyu pyk jgh gS ml rjg ls mldk vUr vfuok;Zr% fdlh u fdlh le>kSrs ls gh gksxkA* mUgksauss ;g Hkh dgk Fkk fd ^;fn ykWMZ jhfMax dh txg iq:"kksÙke nkl* vkSj ^ykMZ bjfou dh txg rst cgknqj lizw* vk tk;sa rks blls turk dks dksbZ QdZ ugha iM+sxk vkSj mudk 'kks"k.k&neu tkjh jgsxkA mUgksaus Hkkjr dh turk dks vkxkg fd;k Fkk fd gekjs ns'k ds usrk] tks 'kklu ij cSBsaxs os ^fons'kh iwath dks vf/kdkf/kd izos'k* nsaxs vkSj ^iwathifr;ksa o fuEu&iwathifr;ksa dks viuh rjQ* feyk;saxsA ^mUgksaus ;g Hkh dgk fd* fudV Hkfo"; esa cgqr 'kh?kz ge ml oxZ dks vkSj mlds usrkvksa dks fons'kh 'kkldksa ds lkFk tkrs ns[ksaxs] rc muesa 'ksj vkSj ykseM+h dk fj'rk u jg tk;sxkA*
lpeqp ^vktkn Hkkjr* ds fodkl dh xfr blh izdkj jgh gSA 1947 esa 248 fons'kh dEifu;ka gekjs ns'k esa dk;Zjr Fkha] ftudh la[;k vkt c<+dj djhc 20 gtkj gks xbZ gSA vkt fons'kh iwath ,oa Hkkjrh; nyky iwath dk xBtksM+ vFkZO;oLFkk ds gj {ks= esa fn[kkbZ iM+ jgk gSA [kkldj 1990 ds ckn mnkjhdj.k] futhdj.k o oS'ohdj.k dh tks izfØ;k pyh mlls gekjs ns'k ds 'kkld oxks± dk vlyh lkezkT;okn ijLr psgjk iwjh rjg csudkc gks x;kA vkt vkS|ksfxd {ks= ds lkFk&lkFk d`f"k o lsok {ks=ksa esa Hkh fons'kh iwath dk ^vf/kdkf/kd izos'k* gks jgk gSA djksM+ksa :- dk ykHk vftZr djus okyh ^uojRuksa* lesr ntZuksa lkoZtfud dEifu;ksa dk fofuos'khdj.k fd;k tk jgk gSA vkSj muds 'ks;jksa dks feÍh ds eksy cM+s&cM+s iwathifr;ksa dks cspk tk jgk gSA LokLF;] f'k{kk] ÅtkZ] flapkbZ] O;kikj] lM+d] jsy] gokbZ o tgktjkuh ifjogu] cSafdax] chek o nwjlapkj vkfn lsokvksa dk /kM+Yys ls futhdj.k fd;k tk jgk gS vkSj buesa ls vf/kdka'k {ks=ksa esa 100 izfr'kr rd fons'kh iwath yxkus dh NwV ns nh xbZ gSA d`f"k] tks vkt Hkh ns'k dh dqy vkcknh ds de ls de 65 izfr'kr yksxksa dh thfodk dk eq[; lk/ku cuk gqvk gS] dks eksUlsUVks o dkjfxy tSlh fons'kh cgqjk"Vªh; dEifu;ksa dk pkjkxkg cuk fn;k x;k gSA ^fuxehd`r [ksrh*] cM+h&cM+h vkS|ksfxd ifj;kstukvksa ,oa ^fo'ks"k vkfFkZd {ks=ksa ds uke ij cM+s iSekus ij fdlkuksa o vkfnokfl;ksa dh tehu cgqjk"Vªh; dEifu;ksa dks lqiwnZ dh tk jgh gSA igys ;s dEifu;ka [ksrh esa [kkn] cht] dhVuk'kd nokvksa o vU; d`f"k midj.kksa dh vkiwfrZ djrh FkhaA vc d`f"k mRiknksa ds [kjhn o O;kikj esa Hkh os vge~ Hkwfedk fuHkk jgh gSaA vkt d`f"k lesr gekjh iwjh vkFkZO;oLFkk fo'o cSad] vkbZ-,e-,Q- o fo'o O;kikj laxBu tSls lkezkT;oknh laLFkkvksa ds paxqy esa cqjh rjg Qal xbZ gSA urhtru] yk[kksa dy&dj[kkus can gks jgs gSa] nfl;ksa yk[k etnwjksa&deZpkfj;ksa dks ukSdjh ls gkFk /kksuk iM+k gS vkSj foxr 15 lkyksa esa ,d yk[k ls vf/kd fdlkuksa dks vkRegR;k djus ij etcwj gksuk iM+k gSA vkSj tc fdlku&etnwj o turk ds vU; rcds vius gd&vf/kdkjksa dh j{kk ds fy, la?k"kZ NsM+rs gSa] rks mu ij ykfB;ka o xksfy;ka cjlkbZ tkrh gSa vkSj mudh ,drk dks [kafMr djus ds fy, /kkfeZd mUekn] tkfrokn o {ks=okn dks HkM+dk;k tkrk gSA
tkfgj gS fd lkezkT;oknh oS'ohdj.k o ywV&[klksV ds bl Hk;kud nkSj esa Hkxr flag ds fopkj dkQh izklafxd gks x;s gSaA [kkldj] lkezkT;okn] /kkfeZd&va/kfo'okl o lkEiznkf;drk] ^tkrh; mRihM+u] vkradokn]  Hkkjrh; 'kkldoxks± ds pfj= ,oa turk dh eqfDr ds fy,] ,d ØkfUrdkjh ikVhZ ds fuekZ.k o ØkfUr dh t:jr ØkfUrdkjh la?k"kZ ds rkSj&rjhds vkSj ØkfUrdkjh oxks± dh  Hkwfedk ds ckjs esa muds fopkjksa dks tkuuk vkSj mUgsa vkRelkr djuk vkt ØkfUrdkjh lewgksa dk QkSjh nkf;Ro gks x;k gSA vkbZ;s] vc ge Hkxr flag ds dqN ewyHkwr fopkjksa ij xkSj djsaA

lkezkT;okn ds ckjs esa
oSls Hkxr flag us vius vusd ys[kksa o oDrO;ksa esa lkezkT;okn o [kkldj fczfV'k lkezkT;okn ds neudkjh pfj= ds ckjs esa ppkZ dh gS] ysfdu ykgkSj lkft'k dsl ls lEcfU/kr fo'ks"k fVªC;wuy ds le{k 5 ebZ] 1930 dks fn;s x, c;ku esa lkezkT;okn dh ,d lqLi"V O;k[;k dh xbZ gSA blesa dgk x;k& ^lkezkT;okn ,d cM+h Mkdstuh dh lkft'k ds vykok dqN ugha gSA lkezkT;okn euq"; ds gkFkksa euq"; ds vkSj jk"Vª ds gkFkksa jk"Vª ds 'kks"k.k dk pje gSA lkezkT;oknh vius fgrksa vkSj ywVus dh ;kstukvksa dks iwjk djus ds fy, u flQZ U;k;ky;ksa ,oa dkuwuksa dks dRy djrs gSa] cfYd Hk;adj gR;kdkaM Hkh vk;ksftr djrs gSaA vius 'kks"k.k dks iwjk djus ds fy, tax tSls [kkSQukd vijk/k Hkh djrs gSaA--- 'kkfUr O;oLFkk dh vkM+ esa os 'kkfUr O;oLFkk Hkax djrs gSaA* [kklrkSj ij fczfV'k lkezkT;okn ij fVIi.kh djrs gq, dgk x;k fd ^vaxzth ljdkj tks vlgk; vkSj vlger Hkkjrh; jk"Vª ij Fkksih xbZ gS] xq.Mksa] Mkdqvksa dk fxjksg vkSj yqVsjksa dh Vksyh gS] ftlus dRysvke djus vkSj yksxksa dks foLFkkfir djus ds fy, lc izdkj dh 'kfDr;ka tqVkbZ gqbZ gSaA 'kkafr&O;oLFkk ds uke ij ;g vius fojksf/k;ksa ;k jgL; [kksyus okyksa dks dqpy nsrh gSA* bu iafDr;ksa ls Li"V gS fd Hkxr flag lkezkT;okn dks euq"; o jk"Vª ds 'kks"k.k dh pje voLFkk ,oa ywV&[klksV] v'kkfUr o ;q) dk lzksr ekurs FksA mudh ;g O;[;k lkezkT;okn dh oSKkfud O;k[;k ds dkQh djhc gSA

Hkkjrh; iwathifr;ksa ds pfj= ds ckjs esa
ØkfUrdkjh [kseksa ds chp Hkkjr ds iwathifr;ksa ds pfj= dks ysdj dkQh fookn gSA dqN laxBu o ny bls ^Lora= iwath ifroxZ* dh laKk ls foHkwf"kr djrs gSa] rks dqN bls ^nyky* o ^jk"Vªh; iwathifr;ksa* ds oxZ esa foHkkftr djrs gSaA blh rjg dqN bls ^lkezkT;okn ds lg;ksxh* ,oa ^vkfJr oxZ* ds :i esa Hkh fpfàr djrs gSaA ysfdu Hkxr flag o muds lkfFk;ksa us blds le>kSrk ijLr o ?kqVuk Vsdq pfj= dks dkQh igys igpku fy;k FkkA ^fgUnqLrku lks'kfyLV fjifCydu ,lksfl,'ku* ds ?kks"k.kk&i= ¼ftls eq[;r% Hkxorhpj.k cksgjk us fy[kk Fkk½ esa lkQ 'kCnksa esa dgk x;k& ^Hkkjr ds fegurd'k oxZ dh gkyr vkt cgqr xaHkhj gSA mlds lkeus nksgjk [krjk gS& ,d rjQ ls fons'kh iwathokn dk vkSj nwljh rjQ ls Hkkjrh; iwathokn ds /kks[ks Hkjs geys dkA Hkkjrh; iwathokn fons'kh iwath ds lkFk gj jkst cgqr ls xBtksM+ dj jgk gSA dqN jktuSfrd usrkvksa dk ^Mksfefu;u* dk :i Lohdkj djuk Hkh gok ds blh :[k dks Li"V djrk gSA Hkkjrh; iwathifr Hkkjrh; yksxksa dks /kks[kk nsdj fons'kh iwathifr;ksa ls] fo'okl?kkr dh dher ds :i esa] ljdkj esa dqN fgLlk izkIr djuk pgrk gSA* vkSj lpeqp VkVk o fcM+yk tSls cM+s iwathifr;ksa ,oa muds jktuhfrd izfrfuf/k;ksa us 1947 esa Hkkjrh; turk ds lkFk fo'okl?kkr vkSj cM+s tehUnkjksa ds lkFk lkaB&xkaB dj lÙkk dh izkfIr dhA

/kkfeZd va/kfo'okl o lkEiznkf;drk ds ckjs esa
/kkfeZd va/kfo'okl o dÍjiaFk us jk"Vªh; eqfDr vkUnksyu esa ,d cM+s ck/kd dh Hkwfedk vnk dh gSA vaxzstksa us /kkfeZd mUekn QSykdj lkEiznkf;d naxs djok;s vkSj turk dh ,drk dks [kafMr fd;kA 1919 ds tfy;kaokyk ckx gR;kdkaM ds ckn fczfV'k ljdkj us lkEiznkf;d naxksa dk O;kid izpkj 'kq: fd;kA [kkldj] 1924 esa dksgV esa Hkh"k.k o vekuoh; fgUnw&eqfLye naxs gq, rks lHkh izxfr'khy o ØkfUrdkjh rkdrksa dks bl fo"k; ij lkspus dks etcwj gksuk iM+kA
Hkxr flag us ebZ] 1928 esa ^/keZ vkSj gekjk LorU=rk laxzke* 'kh"kZd ,d ys[k fy[kk tks ^fdjrh* esa NikA blds ckn mUgksaus twu] 1928 esa ^lkEiznkf;d naxs vkSj mldk bykt* 'kh"kZd ys[k fy[kkA vUr esa xnj ikVhZ ds HkkbZ j.k/khj flag ¼tks Hkxr flag ds lkFk ykgkSj tsy esa ltk dkV jgs Fks½ ds lokyksa ds tckc esa Hkxr flag us 5&6 vDrwcj] 1930 dks ^eSa ukfLrd D;ksa gwa* 'kh"kZd dkQh egRoiw.kZ ys[k fy[kkA bu ys[kksa esa mUgksaus bZ'oj ds vfLrRo ij iz'u fd;kA mUgksaus dgk fd ^bZ'oj ij fo'okl jgL;okn dk ifj.kke gS vkSj jgL;okn ekufld volkn dh lokHkkfod mit gSA* mUgkssaus èkkfeZd xq:vksa ls iz'u fd;k fd ^loZ'kfDreku gksdj Hkh vkidk Hkxoku vU;k;] vR;kpkj] Hkw[k] xjhch] 'kks"k.k] vlekurk] nklrk] egkekjh] fgalk vkSj ;q) dk var D;ksa ugha djrk \* mUgksaus ekDlZ dh fo[;kr mfDr dks dbZ ckj nqgjk;k& ^/keZ turk ds fy, ,d vQhe gSA* mUgksaus /kkfeZd xq:vksa o jktuhfrKksa ij vkjksi yxk;k fd os vius fufgr LokFkks± dh iwfrZ ds fy, lkEiznkf;d naxs djokrs gSaA mUgksaus v[kckjksa ij Hkh vkjksi yxk;k fd os ^mÙkstukiw.kZ ys[k* Nkidj lkEiznkf;d Hkkoukvksa dks HkM+dkrs gSa vkSj ijLij flj QqVkSoy djokrs gSaA mUgksaus blds bykt ds crkSj ^/keZ dks jktuhfr ls vyx j[kus* ij tksj fn;k vkSj dgk fd ^;fn /keZ dks vyx dj fn;k tk;s rks jktuhfr ij ge lHkh bdÎs gks ldrs gSa] /keks± esa ge pkgsa vyx&vyx gh jgsaA* mudk n`< er Fkk fd ^/keZ tc jktuhfr ds lkFk ?kqy&fey tkrk gS] rks og ,d ?kkrd fo"k cu tkrk gS tks jk"Vª ds thfor vaxksa dks /khjs&/khjs u"V djrk jgrk gS] HkkbZ dks HkkbZ ls yM+rk gS] turk ds gkSlys iLr djrk gS] mldh n`f"V dks /kqa/kyk cukrk gS] vlyh nq'eu dh igpku dj ikuk eqf'dy dj nsrk gS] turk dh tq>k: eu% fLFkfr dks detksj djrk gS vkSj bl rjg jk"Vª dks lkezkT;oknh lkft'kksa dh vkØe.kdkjh ;krukvksa dk ykpkj f'kdkj cuk nsrk gSA*  vkt tc gekjs ns'k esa jktlÙkk dh ns[k&js[k esa ckcjh efLtn <kgh tkrh gS vkSj xqtjkr tSls ohHkRl tulagkj jpk;s tkrs gSa] rc Hkxr flag dh bl mfDr dh izklafxdrk lqLi"V gks tkrh gSA

tkrh; mRihM+u ds ckjs esa
tkrh; mRihM+u ds lEcU/k esa Hkxr flag us viuk fopkj eq[; rkSj ij ^vNwr&leL;k* 'kh"kZd vius ys[k esa O;Dr fd;k gSA ;g ys[k twu] 1928 esa ^fdjrh** esa izdkf'kr gqvk FkkA ml oDr vuqlwfpr tkfr;ksa dks ^vNwr* dgk tkrk Fkk vkSj mUgsa dqvksa ls ikuh ugha fudkyus fn;k tkrk FkkA efUnjksa esa Hkh mudk izos'k oftZr Fkk vkSj muds lkFk NqvkNwr dk O;ogkj fd;k tkrk FkkA mPp tkfr;ksa] [kkldj lukruh iafMrksa }kjk fd, x, bl izdkj ds vekuoh; o foHksnh O;ogkj dk mUgksaus dM+k fojks/k fd;kA mUgksaus cEcbZ dkWfUly ds ,d lnL; uwj eqgEen ds ,d oDrO; dk gokyk nsrs gq, iz'u fd;k& ^tc rqe ,d bUlku dks ihus ds fy, ikuh nsus ls Hkh bUdkj djrs gks] tc rqe mUgsa Ldwy esa Hkh i<+us ugha nsrs& rks rqEgsa D;k vf/kdkj gS fd vius fy,  vf/kd vf/kdkj dh ekax djksA* NqvkNwr ds O;ogkj ij Hkh vkifÙk tkfgj djrs gq, dgk& ^dqÙkk gekjh xksn esa cSB ldrk gS] gekjh jlksbZ esa fu%lax fQjrk gSA ysfdu ,d bUlku dk gels Li'kZ gks tk;s rks cl /keZ Hkz"V gks tkrk gSA* tc fgUnw o eqfLye jktusrk vius jktuhfrd LokFkZ dh iwfÙkZ ds fy, ^vNwrksa* dks /keZ ds vk/kkj ij ckaVus yxs] vkSj fQj mUgsa eqfLye ;k blkbZ cukdj viuk /kkfeZd vk/kkj c<+kus yxs] rks mUgsa dkQh ukjktxh gqbZA mUgksaus vNwr leqnk; ds yksxksa dk lh/kk vkg~oku fd;k& ^laxBuc) gks vius iSjksa ij [kM+s gksdj iwjs lekt dks pqukSrh ns nksA rc ns[kuk] dksbZ Hkh rqEgsa rqEgkjs vf/kdkj nsus ls bUdkj djus dh tqjZr u dj ldsxkA rqe nwljksa dh [kqjkd er cuks] nwljs ds eqag dh vksj er rkdksA* ysfdu lkFk gh lkFk] mUgksaus ukSdj'kkgh ls lko/kku djrs gq, dgk& ^ukSdj'kkgh ds >kals esa er iM+ukA ;g rqEgkjh dksbZ lgk;rk ugha djuk pkgrha cfYd rqEgsa viuk eksgjk cukuk pgrh gSA ;gh iwathoknh ukSdj'kkgh rqEgkjh xqykeh vkSj xjhch dk vlyh dkj.k gSA* blh flyflys esa mUgksaus mudh viuh rkdr dk Hkh vglkl fnyk;kA mUgksaus dgk& ^rqe vlyh loZgkjk gksA rqe gh ns'k dk eq[; vk/kkj gks] okLrfod 'kfDr gksA lksps gq, 'ksjksa mBks] vkSj cxkor [kM+h dj nksA*
Hkxr flag dk ;g vkg~oku dkQh ewY;oku gSA [kkldj ,sls le; esa] tc vkt Hkh ØkfUrdkjh rkdrsa nfyrksa ij gksus okys tkrh; o O;oLFkk tfur mRihM+u ds f[kykQ dksbZ dkjxj gLr{ksi ugha dj ik jgh gaSA

vkradokn ds ckjs esa
Hkxr flag ,oa muds lkfFk;ksa ij dbZ jktuSfrd dksuksa ls vkradoknh gkssus dk vkjksi yxk;k tkrk jgk gSA ;gka rd fd egkRek xka/kh Hkh fczfV'k ljdkj dh rjg mUgsa ,d vkradoknh ekurs FksA blhfy, mUgksaus 5 ekpZ] 1931 dks lEiUu gq, ^xka/kh&bjfou le>kSrk* esa Hkxr flag o muds lkfFk;ksa dh Qkalh dh ltk jn~n djus ij tksj ugha fn;kA mYVs] mUgksaus o;ljk; bjfou dks lykg nh fd mUgsa dkaxzsl ds djkaph vf/kos'ku ls igys Qkalh dh ltk ns nh tk;sA vkSj vaxzstksa us djkaph vf/kos'ku ds 'kq: gksus ds ,d fnu igys mUgsa Qkalh ij yVdk fn;kA vxys fnu] ;kuh 24 ekpZ] 1931 dks djkaph jokuk gksus  ls igys ^vfgalk ds iqtkjh* egkRek xka/kh us izsl esa c;ku fn;k& ^esjh O;fDrxr jk; esa Hkxr flag o muds lkfFk;ksa dh Qkalh ls gekjh 'kfDr c<+ xbZ gSA* blh c;ku esa mUgksaus ukStokuksa dks vxkg fd;k fd ^os muds iFk dk voyEcu u djsaA* ysfdu ns'k dh turk o [kkldj ukStokuksa us iwjs ns'k esa Qkalh dh ltk dk rh[kk izfrokn fd;k vkSj djkaph esa ukStokuksa us xka/kh dks dkyk >aMk fn[kk;k vkSj muds f[kykQ vkØks'kiw.kZ ukjs yxk;sA
Hkxr flag us vlsEcyh gkWy esa Qasds x, ipsZ] ,oa lsa'ku o gkbZdksVZ esas vlsEcyh ce dkaM esa fn;s x, c;kuksa] vkSj ^ØkfUrdkjh dk;ZØe dk elkSnk* 'kh"kZd ys[kksa esa vius mij yxk;s x, bl vkjksi ¼vkradoknh gksus½ dk ekdwy tckc fn;k gSA Hkxorhpj.k nksgjk us xka/kh ds ys[k ^ce dh iwtk* ¼ftlesa vlsEcyh ce dkaM dh rh[kh vkykspuk dh xbZ Fkh½ ds tckc esa ^ce dk n'kZu* 'kh"kZd ,d lkjxfeZr ys[k fy[kk] ftlesa xka/kh ds reke rdks± dk cf[k;k m/ksM+k x;kA bl ys[k dks vfUre :i Hkxr flag us iznku fd;kA
Hkxr flag us vius c;kuksa o ys[kksa esa lkQ 'kCnksa esa Lohdkj fd;k fd 'kq:vkrh nkSj esa os ,d jksekf.Vd ØkfUrdkjh Fks vkSj muij  :lh usrk ckdqfuu dk izHkko FkkA ysfdu ckn esa os ,d lPps ØkfUrdkjh cu x,A mUgksaus Qjojh] 1931 esa fy[ks x, ^ØkfUrdkjh dk;ZØe dk elkSnk* 'kh"kZd ys[k esa dgk& ^vkradokn gekjs lekt esa ØkfUrdkjh fparu dh idM+ ds vHkko dh vfHkO;fDr gS] ;k ,d iNrkokA blh rjg ;g viuh vlQyrk dk Lohdkj Hkh gSA 'kq:&'kq: esa bldk dqN ykHk FkkA blus jktuhfr esa vkewy cnyko yk;kA uo;qod cqf)thfo;ksa dh lksp dks pedk;k] vkRe R;kx dh Hkkouk dks Toyar :i fn;k vkSj nqfu;k o vius nq'euksa ds lkeus vius vkUnksyu dh lPpkbZ ,oa 'kfDr dks tkfgj djus dk volj feykA ysfdu og Lo;a esa i;kZIr ugha gSA lHkh ns'kksa esa bldk ¼vkradokn½ bfrgkl vlQyrk dk bfrgkl gS& Ýkal] :l] teZuh Lisu esa gj txg bldh ;gh dgkuh gSA* bl mfDr ls tkfgj gS fd Hkxr flag vkradoknh ugha cfYd ØkfUrdkjh Fks] ftudk dqN fuf'pr fopkj] fuf'pr vkn'kZ vkSj ØkfUr dk ,d yEck dk;ZØe FkkA
KkrO; gS fd vkt Hkh Hkxr flag ds lPps vuq;kf;;ksa] ;kuh uDlyokfn;ksa dks] Hkkjr ljdkj o vesfjdh lkezkT;oknh ^vkradoknh* djkj nsdj rjg&rjg dh ;kruk dk f'kdkj cuk jgs gSaA mUgsa QthZ iqfyl eqBHksM+ksa esa ekjk tk jgk gS vkSj muds usr`Ro esa py jgs vkUnksyuksa dks dqpyus ds fy, Lis'ky dek.Mks QkslZ ds lkFk&lkFk ,;j QkslZ dk Hkh bLrseky fd;k tk jgk gSA mudk ^vijkèk* ;gh gS fd os Hkxr flag dh rjg ^vU;k; ij fVdh O;oLFkk dk vkewy ifjoZru* djuk pkgrs gSaA

fgalk ds iz;ksx ds ckjs esa
Hkkjr ds jk"Vªh; eqfDr vkUnksyu esa fgalk ds bLrseky ij egkRek xka/kh ,oa Hkxr flag o muds lkfFk;ksa ds chp dkQh xaHkhj ppkZ gqbZ gSA egkRek xka/kh dk ekuuk Fkk fd ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ds fgalkRed vkUnksyu ls ,d rks ljdkj dk lSfud [kpZ c<+ x;k gS] ftldk cks> vke ukxfjdksa ij iM+ jgk gS] vkSj nwljs] muds usr`Ro esa py jgs vfgalkRed vkUnksyu dks dkQh {kfÙk igqaph gSA mUgksaus lq[knso ds i= dk tckc nsrs gq, fy[kk fd ^;fn ns'k dk okrkoj.k iw.kZr;k 'kkUr jgrk rks ge vius y{; dks vc ls igys gh izkIr dj pqds gksrsA tcfd Hkxr flag dh le> Fkh fd ^vfgalk Hkys gh ,d usd vkn'kZ gS] ysfdu ;g vrhr dh pht gSA ftl fLFkfr esa ge vkt gSa] flQZ vfgalk ds jkLrs ls dHkh Hkh vktknh izkIr ugha dj ldrsA nqfu;k flj ls ikao rd gfFk;kjksa ls ySl gS] ysfdu ge tks xqyke gSa ges ,sls >wBs fl)karksa ds tfj, vius jkLrs ls ugha HkVduk pkfg,A* mUgksaus VdhZ vkSj :l dh l'kL= ØkfUr dk mnkgj.k nsdj crk;k fd ftu ns'kksa esa fgalkRed rjhds ls la?k"kZ fd;k x;k] mudh lkekftd izxfr gqbZ vkSj mUgsa jktuhfrd Lora=rk dh Hkh izkfIr gqbZA gkykafd os ;g Hkh ekurs Fks fd ^ØkfUr ds fy, [kwuh la?k"kZ vfuok;Z ugha gS vkSj u gh mlesa O;fDrxr izfrfgalk dk dksbZ LFkku gSA og ce vkSj fiLrkSy dh laLd`fr ugha gSA* ¼ns[ksa& ls'ku dksVZ esa 6 twu] 1929 dk c;ku½ os vPNh rjg le>rs Fks fd ØkfUr dk rjhdk 'kkldksa ds :[k ls r; gksrk gSA mUgksaus ?kks"k.kk dh fd ^tgka rd 'kkfUr iw.kZ ;k vU; rjhdksa ls ØkfUrdkjh vkn'kks± dh LFkkiuk dk loky gS bldk pquko rRdkyhu 'kkldksa dh ethZ ij fuHkZj gSA ØkfUrdkjh vius ekuoh;  I;kj ds xq.kksa ds dkj.k ekuork ds iqtkjh gSaA ---ØkfUrdkjh vxj ce vkSj fiLrkSy dk lgkjk ysrk gS rks ;g mldh pje vko';drk ls iSnk gksrh gSA vkSj vkf[kjh nkao ds rkSj ij gksrk gSA**
lpeqp tc 'kkld oxZ ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ds reke 'kkafr izLrkoksa ij laxhu j[k nsrk gS rks muds lkeus dksbZ fodYi ugha cprk gS] flok; izfrØkfUrdkjh fgalk dk tckc ØkfUrdkjh fgalk ls nsus dkA vkt tc ;gh NÙkhlx<+ esa ^lyok tqMwe* dh gR;kjh tekr dks fn;k tk jgk gS] rks 'kkld oxks± ds lkFk&lkFk dqN cqf)thohx.k ,oa ukxfjd o ekuokf/kdkj laxBu Hkh ^fgalk* ;k ^vR;fèkd fgalk* dk loky [kM+k dj jgs gSaA
gky ds o"kks± esa gekjs ns'k ds dqN cqf)thfo;ksa vkSj izxfr'khy o turkfU=d tekrksa us Hkh fgalk ds iz'u ij Hkxr flag dh le> dks ysdj ,d ubZ cgl NsM+h gSA mudk dguk gS fd tsy tkus ds ckn Hkxr flag us tc dkQh v/;;u o euu fd;k rks os ,d ^jksekfUVd vkn'kZoknh ØkfUrdkjh* ls ,d ^oSKkfud ØkfUrdkjh* cu x, vkSj mUgksaus ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu esa fgalkRed rjhdk viuk;s tkus dk fojks/k fd;kA bl rF; dks lkfcr djus ds fy, os vke rkSj ij Hkxr flag dh nks mfDR;ksa dks is'k djrs gSaA igyh mfDr tuojh] 1930 esa ykgkSj gkbZdksVZ esa fn, x, muds c;ku ls yh xbZ gS tks bl izdkj gS& ^bUdykc ftUnkckn* ls gekjk og mn~ns'; ugha Fkk tks vke rkSj ij xyr vFkZ esa le>k tkrk gSA fiLrkSy vkSj ce bUdykc ugha ykrs cfYd bUdykc dh ryokj fopkjksa dh 'kku ij rst gksrh gSA* nwljh mfDr ^eSa ukfLrd D;ksa gwa\* 'kh"kZd ys[k ls yh xbZ gS tks 5&6 vDrwcj] 1930 dks fy[kk x;k FkkA ;g mfDr bl izdkj gS& ^bl le; eSa dsoy ,d jksekf.Vd vkn'kZoknh ØkfUrdkjh FkkA vc rd ge nwljksa dk vuqlj.k djrs Fks] vc vius dU/kksa ij ftEesnkjh mBkus dk le; vk;k FkkA dqN le; rd rks] vo';EHkkoh izfrfØ;k ds QyLo:i ikVhZ dk vfLrRo gh vlEHko&lk fn[kkA mRlkgh dkejsMksa& ugha usrkvksa& us Hkh gekjk migkl djuk 'kq: dj fn;kA dqN le; rd rks eq>s ;g Mj yxk fd ,d fnu eSa Hkh dgha vius dk;ZØe dh O;FkZrk ds ckjs esa vk'oLr u gks tkÅ¡A og esjs ØkfUrdkjh thou dk ,d fu.kkZ;d fcUnq FkkA ^v/;;u* dh iqdkj esjs eu ds xfy;kjksa esa xwat jgh Fkh& fojksf/k;ksa }kjk j[ks x, rdks± dk lkeuk djus ;ksX; cuus ds fy, v/;;u djksA vius er ds leFkZu esa rdZ nsus ds fy, l{ke gksus ds okLrs i<+ksA eSaus i<+uk 'kq: dj fn;kA blls esjs iqjkus fopkj o fo'okl vn~Hkqr :i ls ifj"d`r gq,A fgalkRed rjhdksa dks viukus dk jksekal] tks fd gekjs iqjkus lkfFk;ksa eas vR;f/kd O;kIr Fkk] dh txg xEHkhj fopkjksa us ys yhA vc jgL;okn vkSj vU/kfo'okl ds fy, dksbZ LFkku ugha jgkA ;FkkFkZokn gekjk vk/kkj cukA fgalk rHkh U;;ksfpr gS tc fdlh fodV vko';drk esa mldk lgkjk fy;k tk;sA vfgalk lHkh tu&vkUnksyuksa dk vfuok;Z fl)kUr gksuk pkfg,*A
tgka rd igyh mfDr dk lEcU/k gS og Hkxr flag us tt dks ^bUdykc ftUnkckn* dk lgh vFkZ crkyus ds fy, vkSj  lkFk gh lkFk ØkfUr esa fopkj/kkjk ds egRo dks le>kus ds fy, dgk Fkk] u fd ØkfUr esa fgalkRed la?k"kZ dh Hkwfedk dks udkjus ds fy,A nwljh ckr ;g gS fd blh c;ku esa Hkxr flag us lkQ 'kCnksa esa dgk Fkk fd ^ls'ku tt dh vnkyr esa geus tks fyf[kr c;ku fn;k Fkk] og gekjs mn~ns'; dh O;k[;k djrk gS vkSj ml :i esa gekjh uh;r dh Hkh O;k[;k djrk gS-A*vkSj ge ns[aksa  fd ls'ku dksVZ esa fn, x, c;ku esa mUgksaus D;k dgk Fkk \ mUgksaus dgk Fkk fd gekjk y{; gS ^ØkfUr*] ;kuh ^vU;k; ij vk/kkfjr ekStwnk lekt O;oLFkk esa vkewy ifjorZu*A lkFk gh] mUgksaus ;g Hkh dgk Fkk fd ^vxj orZeku 'kklu&O;oLFkk mBrh gqbZ tu 'kfDr ds ekxZ esa jksM+s vVdkus ls ckt u vkbZ rks ØkfUr ds bl vkn'kZ dh iwfrZ ds fy, ,d Hk;adj ;q) dk fNM+uk vfuok;Z gSA lHkh ck/kkvksa dks jkSandj vkxs c<+rs gq, ml ;q) ds QyLo:i loZgkjk oxZ ds vf/kuk;dRo dh LFkkiuk gksxhA* D;k bl c;ku esa Hkxr flag ,d ,sls ^Hk;adj ;q)* dh dYiuk dj jgs Fks tks iwjh rjg vfgald gksxh vkSj ftlesa flQZ fopkjksa dh ryokj pysxh \
tgka rd nwljh mfDr dk iz'u gS] mldk rks lanHkZ gh iwjh rjg fHkUu gSA ;g mfDr ,d ,sls ys[k ls yh xbZ gS ftles aHkxr flag us bZ'oj] /keZ] lEiznk;] jgL;okn o va/kfo'okl ds ckjs esa vius oSKkfud fopkj izLrqr fd;k gSA bl ys[k esa ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu esa fgalk ds iz;ksx ij dksbZ iz'u fpà ugha [kM+k fd;k x;k gSA blesa Hkxr flag us 1925 ds iwoZ dh dkjokbZ;ksa dh leh{kk ,oa ml le; dh viuh jktuSfrd fLFkfr dks is'k fd;k gSA 1925 esa dkdksjh ,D'ku ds ckn fgUnqLrku fjifCydu ikVhZ ds  vf/kdka'k usrk fxj¶rkj dj fy, x, FksA blds ckn ikVhZ dh ftEesnkjh Hkxr flag ,oa muds lkfFk;ksa ds da/kksa ij vk xbZ Fkh vkSj muds lkeus dbZ xaHkhj loky o leL;k,a eqagck;s [kM+h FkhaA bu lokyksa o leL;kvksa dks gy <wa<us ds fy, mUgksaus ns'k o fo'o ds ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu dk xaHkhj v/;;u o fo'ys"k.k fd;k vkSj Hkkjr ds ØkfUrdkjh vkUnskyu dks ^jgL;okn o /kkfeZd va/k fo'okl* ,oa ^fgalkRed rjhds viukus ds jksekal* ¼ftuls ,p-vkj- ih- ds izk;% lHkh iqjkus usrk xzflr Fks½ ls eqDr djus dk chM+k mBk;kA mUgksaus ØkfUrdkjh la?k"kZ esa turk dh O;kid Hkkxhnkjh ij tksj fn;k vkSj dgk fd turk eq[;r% vfgalkRed rjhds ls yM+sxh] ysfdu fo'ks"k gkyr esa mldh fgalkRed dkjZokbZ Hkh tk;t gksxhA ;gh nwljh mfDr dh vfUre nks iafDr;ksa dk vlyh eryc gSA bl iwjh mfDr ds lgh vFkZ dks le>us ds fy, jktdey izdk'ku }kjk izdkf'kr ^Hkxr flag vkSj muds lkfFk;ksa ds nLrkost* 'kh"kZd fdrkc dh txeksgu flag o peu yky }kjk fyf[kr Hkwfedk dks i<uk pkfg,A bl Hkwfedk esa vfUre nks ifDr;ksa dks ,d la;qDr okD; ds :i esa bl izdkj j[kk x;k gS& ^fdlh fo'ks"k gkyr esa fgalk tk;t gks ldrh gS] ysfdu tu&vkUnksyuksa dk eq[; gfFk;kj vfgalk gksxhA*
bl rjg Li"V gS fd Hkxr flag ds mDr nksuksa oDrO; ;g lkfcr ugha djrs fd mUgksaus ØkfUrdkjh laxzke esa fgalkRed rjhds viukus dk fojks/k fd;k FkkA vxj os ,slk djrs rks ^eSa ukfLrd D;ksa gwa \* ds ckn fy[ks x, ^ØkfUrdkjh dk;ZØe dk elkSnk* 'kh"kZd nLrkost ¼2 Qjojh] 1931½ esa ukStokuksa ls ^lSfud foHkkx* xfBr djus dk vkg~oku ugha djrsA lkFk gh lkFk] os ØkfUrdkjh ikVhZ ds ,d dk;ZHkkj ds :i esa ^,sD'ku dfeVh* cukus ¼ftldk izeq[k dke gfFk;kj laxzg djuk] fonzksg dk izf'k{k.k nsuk vkSj 'k=q ij xqIr geyk djuk gksxk½ dh ckr ugha djrsA¼ns[ksa& Hkxr flag vkSj muds lkfFk;ksa ds nLrkost] ist ua-& 404] jktdey izdk'ku dk isijcSd laLdj.k½ blds vykok Qkalh ij yVdk;s tkus ds 3 fnu iwoZ 20 ekpZ] 1931 dks Hkxr flag] jktxq: o lq[knso }kjk iatkc ds xouZj dks Hksts x, i= esa os ugha fy[krs fd ^geus fuf'pr :i ls ;q) esa Hkkx fy;k] vr% ge ;q) canh gSaA   --- fudV Hkfo"; esa vfUre ;q) yM+k tk;sxk vkSj ;g fu.kkZ;d gksxkA--- ;gh og yM+kbZ gS ftlesa geus izR;{k :i ls Hkkx fy;k gS vkSj ge vius mij xoZ djrs gSaA*¼ns[ksa ogh fdrkc& ist ua- 379&80½

dkuwu ,oa U;k;ikfydk ds ckjs esa

^^gekjk fo'okl gS fd veu vkSj dkuwu euq"; ds fy, gS] u fd euq"; veu vkSj dkuwu ds fy,A ---- dkuwu dh ifo=rk rHkh rd j[kh tk ldrh gS tc rd og turk ds fny ;kuh Hkkoukvksa dks izdV djrk gSA tc ;g 'kks"k.kdkjh lewg ds gkFkksa dk ,d iqtkZ cu tkrk gS rc viuh ifo=rk vkSj egRo [kks cSBrk gSA U;k; iznku djus ds fy, ewy ckr ;g gS fd gj rjg ds ykHk ;k fgr dk [kkRek gksuk pkfg,A T;ksa gh dkuwu lkekftd vko';drkvksa dks iwjk djuk can dj nsrk gS R;ksa gh tqYe vkSj vU;k; dks c<+kus dk gfFk;kj cu tkrk gSA ,sls dkuwuksa dks tkjh j[kuk lkewfgd fgrksa ij fo'ks"k fgrksa dh nEHkiw.kZ tcjnLrh ds flok; dqN ugha gSA**
'kghn Hkxr flag vkSj muds lkfFk;ksa us ;g ckr dfe'uj] fo'ks"k fVªC;wuy ¼ykgkSj "kM+;U= dsl½ dks 5 ebZ 1930 dks fy[kh FkhA ml fnu ljdkj ds v/;kns'k }kjk LFkkfir fo'ks"k fVªC;wuy dh dkjZokbZ iwaN gkml esa 'kq: gqbZ FkhA ljdkj us iatkc gkbZdksVZ ds vf/kdkj {ks= esa bl fVªC;wuy dk xBu blfy, fd;k Fkk] rkfd Hkxr flag vkSj muds lkfFk;ksa ij py jgs eqdnes dh rsth ls lquokbZ dh tk ldsA tcfd Hkxr flag o muds lkFkh pkgrs Fks fd eqdnes dh dkjZokbZ /kheh xfr ls pys] rkfd mUgsa vke turk rd vius fopkjksa dks ys tkus ds fy, T;knk ls T;knk le; fey ldsA gkykafd os vPNh rjg tkurs Fks fd fo'ks"k fVªC;wuy ^U;k; ugha ns ldrk* vkSj ;g ^dkuwu dk ,d [kwclwjr Qjsc* ds flok; dqN ugha gSA os eqdnes ds ifj.kke ls Hkh vPNh rjg okfdQ FksA
ml fnu Hkxr flag vkSj muds lkFkh ØkfUrdkjh xhr xkrs gq, vkSj ukjs yxkrs gq, vnkyr esa gkftj gq, FksA Hkxr flag us ekax dh Fkh mUgsa fVªC;wuy ds ^xSj dkuwuh* gksus lEca/kh nyhy is'k djus gsrq 15 fnuksa dk le; fn;k tk;sA ysfdu mUgsa ;g le; ugha fn;k x;k vkSj eqdnesa dh dkjZokbZ 'kq: dj nh xbZA Hkxr flag o muds lkfFk;ksa us dksbZ odhy j[kus ls lkQ bUdkj dj fn;kA blds ckn mUgsa 12 ebZ 1930 dks gFkdM+h yxkdj fVªC;wuy ds le{k is'k fd;k x;kA tc mUgksaus gFkdM+h yxkus d fojks/k fd;k rks fVªC;wuy ds v/;{k us xkyh nsrs gq, bu ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dks ihVus dk vkns'k fn;kA iqfyl us izsl laoknnkrkvksa ,oa vke yksxksa ds le{k mUgsa] [kkldj Hkxr flag dks ykfB;ksa o twrksa ls ihVkA ljsvke vnkyr esa bl izdkj dh fiVkbZ dh nqfu;k Hkj esa dkQh ppkZ gqbZA iwjs Hkkjr esa blds fojks/k esa vkoktsa mBhaA urhtru bl fo'ks"k fVªC;wuy ds v/;{k dks ^yEch NqÍh* ij tkuk iM+k vkSj ljdkj dks bls iquxZfBr djuk iM+kA
blh iquxZfBr fVªC;wuy esa tc Hkxr flag ds firk ljnkj fd'ku flag us ,d vkosnu nsdj cpko is'k djus dh ekax dh rks blls Hkxr flag dks dkQh nq%[k gqvkA mUgksaus bl ckcr 4 vDrwcj 1930 dks vius firk ds uke ,d dM+k i= fy[kkA bl i= esa Hkxr flag us Li"V 'kCnksa esa dgk fd ^;fn dksbZ vU; O;fDr eq>ls ,slk O;ogkj djrk rks eSa bls xn~nkjh ls de u ekurk] ysfdu vkids lEca/k esa bruk gh dgwaxk fd ;g ,d detksjh gS& fupys ntsZ dh detksjhA ---eSa tkurk gwa fd vkius viuh iwjh ftUnxh Hkkjr dh vktknh ds fy, yxk nh gS] ysfdu bl vge eksM+ ij vkius ,slh detksjh fn[kk;h] ;g ckr eSa le> ugha ikrk \*
njvly Hkxr flag ,oa muds lkFkh fczfV'k ljdkj }kjk xfBr U;k;ky;ksa dh lkezkT;okni{kh o tu fojks/kh Hkwfedk ls vPNh rjg okfdQ FksA mudk ekuuk Fkk fd fczfV'k ljdkj ds dkuwu vkSifuosf'kd 'kklu ds fgrksa ds vuqdwy pyrs gSa vkSj muds U;k;ky; lkezkT;oknh 'kks"k.k ds gh ,d vkStkj gSaA blhfy, mUgksaus dgk Fkk fd ^gj Hkkjrh; dh ;g ftEesnkjh curh gS fd bu dkuwuksa dks pqukSrh ns vkSj budk mYya?ku djsA* blhfy, eqdnes dh lquokbZ ds nkSjku mUgksaus xksdhZ ds ikosy dh rjg viuh lQkbZ esa dqN Hkh dgus ls bUdkj fd;k FkkA mudk ekuuk Fkk fd fczfV'k ljdkj u rks U;k; ij vk/kkfjr vkSj u gh dkuwuh vkèkkj ijA blfy, bl ljdkj }kjk lapkfyr fdlh Hkh U;kf;d izfØ;k dks os dgha ls Hkh U;k;ksfpr ugha ekurs FksA
ysfdu Hkxr falag ,oa muds lkFkh vnkyrksa dk cfg"dkj ugha djrs FksA os fczfV'k vnkyrksa dk Hkh ,d jktuSfrd eap ds :i esa mi;ksx djrs FksA bl lEca/k esa Hkxr flag ds lqfuf'pr fopkj Fks] ftls mUgksaus vius ,d lkFkh dks tsy ls fy[ks ,d i= esa O;Dr fd;k FkkA mudk ;g i= twu 1931 esa ykgkSj ls izdkf'kr ^ihiqYl* uked ,d vaxzsth lkIrkfgd esa Nik FkkA blesa mUgksaus fy[kk Fkk fd ^jktuSfrd cfUn;ksa dks viuh iSjoh Lo;a djuh pkfg,*] ^jktuSfrd egRo ds dsl esa O;fDrxr igyw dks jktuSfrd igyw ls vf/kd egRo ugha fn;k tkuk pkfg,* vkSj ^fxj¶rkjh ds ckn mlds dke dk jktuSfrd egRo lekIr ugha gksuk pkfg,A* mUgksaus ;g Hkh fy[kk fd jktnzksg ds eqdneksa esa ^gesa vius }kjk izpkfjr fopkjksa vkSj vkn'kks± dks Lohdkj dj ysuk pkfg, vkSj Lora= Hkk"k.k dk vf/kdkj ekaxuk pkfg,A* mUgksaus ØkfUrdkfj;ksa dks lko/kku fd;k fd vxj ge ,sls eqdneksa esa viuk cpko ;g dgdj djsaxs fd ^geus dqN dgk gh ugha*] rks ;g ckr ^gekjs vkius gh vkUnksyu ds fgrksa ds fo:)* gksxhA blh i= esa mUgksaus odhyksa ls Hkh vihy dh vkSj dgk& ^odhyksa dks mu ukStokuksa dh ftUnfx;ka] ;gka rd fd ekSrksa dks Hkh [kjkc djus esa brus vkReghu fo'ks"kK ugha gksuk pkfg,] tks nq%[kh turk dh eqfDr ds ifo= dke esa vius vki U;ksNkoj djus ds fy, vkrs gSaA* mUgksaus jktuSfrd eqdnes esa T;knk Qhl ysus ij Hkh vk'p;Z O;Dr fd;k& ^Hkyk ,d odhy fdlh jktuSfrd eqdnesa esa ;dhu u vkus okyh Qhl D;ksa ekaxs!*
bUgha mi;qZDr fopkjksa ds lkFk Hkxr flag o muds lkfFk;ksa us tc Hkh ekSdk feyk] vnkyrksa dk Hkjiwj jktuSfrd mi;ksx fd;kA  bl lEcU/k esa vlsEcyh ce dk.M ij fnYyh ls'ku dksVZ ,oa ykgkSj gkbZ dksVZ esa fn;s x, muds c;ku dkQh egRoiw.kZ gSaA Hkxr flag ,oa cVqds'oj nÙk esa 6 twu] 1929 dks fnYyh ls'ku tt ds le{k ,d ,sfrgkfld c;ku fn;kA bl c;ku esa u dsoy ^vkS|ksfxd fookn fo/ks;d* ,oa ^lkoZtfud lqj{kk fo/ks;d* ds vlyh tu fojks/kh etnwj fojks/kh pfj= ij izdk'k Mkyk x;k] cfYd ^dkYifud fgalk* ^vkewy ifjorZu* ,oa ^ØkfUr* ds ckjs esa ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ds fopkj Hkh j[ks x,A lkFk gh lkFk] ^cgjh* vaxzsth gqdwer dks ^lqukus* vkSj ^lkef;d psrkouh* nsus ds fy, vlsEcyh esa ce Qsadus ds vkSfpR; dh Hkh O;k[;k dh xbZA
fnYyh ls'ku tt us tc bl dsl esa vkthou dkjkokl dh ltk lquk nh rks blds f[kykQ ykgkSj gkbZdksVZ esa vihy dh xbZA bl ltk ds vkSfpR; ij iz'u [kM+k djrs gq, Hkxr flag us gkbZdksVZ esa dkQh egRoiw.kZ c;ku fn;kA mUgksaus izfl) dkuwu fo'ks"kK lkykseku ds gokys ls dgk fd ^fdlh O;fDr dks mlds vijk/kh vkpj.k ds fy, ml le; rd ltk ugha feyuh pkfg,] tc rd mldk m|s'; dkuwu fojks/kh fl) u gks tk;sA* mUgksaus ;g Hkh dgk fd ^;fn mn~ns'; dks iwjh rjg Hkqyk fn;k tk;s rks fdlh Hkh O;fDr ds lkFk U;k; ugha gks ldrk] D;ksafd mn~ns'; dks utjksa esa u j[kus ij lalkj ds cM+s&cM+s lsukifr lk/kkj.k gR;kjs utj vk;saxs] ljdkjh dj olwy djus okys vf/kdkjh pksj] tylkt fn[kkbZ nsaxs vkSj U;k;k/kh'kksa ij Hkh dRy dk vfHk;ksx yxsxkA* bl c;ku esa mUgksaus vlsEcyh esa ce Qsadus ds vius ifo= o tu i{kh; mn~ns'; ,oa ^bUdykc ftUnkckn* ds vlyh eryc dks le>kus dk iz;kl fd;kA mUgksaus nyhy nh fd pwafd mUgksaus vlsEcyh ds [kkyh LFkku ij ce Qsadus ds ^eqf'dy dke* dks vatke fn;k gS] blfy, mUgsa ^cnys dh Hkkouk ls* ltk nsus dh ctk; ^buke* fn;k tk;sA
tSlk fd ge tkurs gSa] fczfV'k U;k;ky; us Hkxr flag] cVqds'oj nÙk] jktxq: o vU; ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ds lkFk U;k; ugha fd;k ¼vkSj og dj Hkh ugha ldrk Fkk½ vkSj muesa ls dbZ;ksa dks ekSr dh ccZj ltk lquk nhA tsy dh dky&dksBfj;ksa esa can bu ØkfUrdkfj;ksa us vius jktuSfrd vf/kdkjksa ds fy, dkQh rh[ks la?k"kZ fd, vkSj U;k;ky; ds le{k dbZ ekaxs Hkh is'k dhaA fczfV'k U;k;ky; mudh reke U;k;fiz; ekaxksa dks <qdjkrk jgkA vUrr% 23 ekpZ 1931 dks ¼vnkyr }kjk fu;r frfFk esa ,d fnu iwoZ½ Hkxr flag] jktxq: o lq[knso dks Qkalh ij p<+k fn;k x;kA
fczfV'k gqdwer us Hkxr flag ds ikfFkZo 'kjhj dks rks u"V dj fn;k ysfdu muds ØkfUrdkjh fopkj vkt Hkh dkQh izklafxd gSaA vkt gekjs ^vktkn Hkkjr* dh U;k;ikfydk Hkh vkerkSj ij 'kkld oxks± ds fgrksa dk gh laj{k.k djrh gSaA gekjs ns'k esa vkt Hkh fczfV'k tekus ds tsy eSU;wvy] Hkkjrh; naM fo/kku] vijkf/kd n.M fo/kku o vU; dkuwu dqN ekewyh lq/kkjksa ds lkFk ykxw gSA vkt Hkh Hkkjrh; U;k;ky;ksa o tsyksa esa ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ds lkFk izk;% mlh izdkj dk xSj dkuwuh o vekuoh; O;ogkj fd;k tkrk gS] tSlk fd fczfV'k dky esa gksrk FkkA Hkxr flag ds jkLrs ij pyus okys Hkkjr ds ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ds lkFk&lkFk vke turk dks Hkh r; djuk gS fd bl 'kkld oxZ i{kh U;k;ikfydk ds lkFk D;k O;ogkj fd;k tk;sA

ØkfUr ds ckjs esa
vius c;kuksa vkSj ys[kksa esa Hkxr flag us ØkfUr dh vo/kkj.kk ,oa ØkfUrdkjh laxzke esa fofHkUu oxks± o lewgksa dh Hkwfedk ds ckjs esa dkQh foLrkj ls ppkZ dh gSA mUgksaus dgk fd vxj dksbZ ljdkj turk dks ewyHkwr vf/kdkjksa ls oafpr j[krh gS rks turk dk vko';d nkf;Ro cu tkrk gS fd og u dsoy ,slh ljdkj dks lekIr dj ns] cfYd orZeku <kaps ds lkekftd] vkfFkZd vkSj jktuSfrd {k=ksa esa ØkfUrdkjh ifjorZu ykus gsrw mB [kM+h gksA mUgksaus ØkfUr dh vo/kkj.kk dks Li"V djrs gq, dgk& ^Økafr ls gekjk vfHkizk; ;g gS fd orZeku O;oLFkk] tks [kqys rkSj ij vU;k; ij fVdh gqbZ gS] cnyuh pkfg,A--- ØkfUr ls gekjk vfHkizk; vUrr% ,d ,slh lkekftd O;oLFkk dh LFkkiuk ls gS ftlesa loZgkjk oxZ dh izHkqlÙkk dks ekU;rk gks] rFkk ,d fo'o la?k ekuo tkfr dks iwathokn ds ca/ku ls vkSj lkezkT;oknh ;q)ksa esa mRiUu gksus okyh cjcknh vkSj eqlhcrksa ls cpk ldsA* ;g c;ku mUgksaus ls'ku vnkyr esa rc fn;k Fkk tc tt us muls ØkfUr dk eryc iwNk FkkA bl c;ku ls Li"V gksrk Fkk fd ØkfUr ds ckjs esa mudk n`f"Vdks.k fdruk O;kid FkkA
ØkfUr esa turk ds fofHkUu oxks± o lewgksa dh Hkwfedk ds ckjs esa Hkh mudk n`f"Vdks.k dkQh lkQ FkkA os ,slh ØkfUr djuk pkgrs Fks ^tks turk ds fy, gks vkSj ftls turk gh iwjh djs*] vkSj ftldk eryc ^turk ds fy,] turk ds }kjk jktuhfrd lÙkk ij dCtk* djuk gksA bl rjg Hkxr flag dk ;g n`f"Vdks.k ekvks dh bl mfDr ls esy [kkrh gS fd turk vkSj dsoy turk gh ØkfUr dh izsjd 'kfDr gksrh gSA Hkxr flag ØkfUr esa fdlkuksa&etnwjksa dh egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk dks c[kwch le>rs FksA os dgrs Fks fd ^xkaoksa ds fdlku vkSj dkj[kkuksa ds etnwj gh vlyh ØkfUrdkjh lSfud gSaA ^[kklrkSj ij os Jfedksa dh Hkwfedk ij tksj nsrs FksA mUgksaus dgk fd ^lkezkT;okfn;ksa dks xn~nh ls mrkjus dk Hkkjr ds ikl ,dek= gfFk;kj Jfed ØkfUr gSA* blh lUnHkZ esa os ØkfUr ds ckn ^loZgkjk oxZ dh izHkqlÙkk* dh LFkkiuk djuk pkgrs FksA os ukStokuksa dks Hkwfedk dks Hkh vPNh rjg le>rs FksA fgUnqLrku lks'kfyLV fjifCydu ,lksfl;s'ku ds ?kks"k.kki= esa ;g dgk x;k fd ^ns'k dk Hkfo"; ukStokuksa ds lgkjs gSA ogh /kjrh ds csVs gSaA mudh nq%[k lgus dh rRijrk] mudh os[kkSQ cgknqjh vkSj ygjkrh dqckZuh n'kkZrh gS fd Hkkjr dk Hkfo"; muds gkFk lqjf{kr gSA* bu oxks± o lewgksa ds vykok Hkxr flag us ^ØkfUrdkjh dk;ZØe dk elkSnk* 'kh"kZd ys[k esa cqf)thfo;ksa] nLrdkjksa o efgykvksa dks Hkh laxfBr djus ij tksj fn;kA lkFk gh] mUgksaus ^dkaxzsl ds eap dk ykHk mBkus*] ^VªsM ;wfu;uksa esa dke djus ,oa mu ij dCtk tekus* ,oa lkekftd o Lo;alsoh laxBuksa ¼;gka rd fd lgdkfjrk lfefr;ksa½ esa xqIr :i ls dke djus dk fn'kk&funsZ'k fn;kA
tgka rd ØkfUr dh eafty dk iz'u gS] bl ij Hkxr flag ds [kses ,oa mlds ckgj ds ØkfUrdkfj;ksa ds chp dkQh erHksn FksA dqN yksx ^jk"Vªh; ØkfUr* dh odkyr djrs Fks rks dqN yksx ^lektoknh ØkfUr* dhA Hkxr flag bl cgl esa vkerkSj ij ^lektoknh ØkfUr* dk i{k ysrs Fks] ysfdu mUgksaus bl ØkfUr dh O;k[;k bl :i esa dh Fkh& ^dksbZ Hkh jk"Vª xqyke gks rks og oxZghu lekt dh LFkkiuk ugha dj ldrk] 'kks"k.k dk [kkRek ugha dj ldrk vkSj euq";ksa ds chp lekurk dk;e ugha dj ldrkA vr% ,sls fdlh jk"Vª dh igyh t:jr lkezkT;oknh xqykeh ds ca/kuksa dks rksM+us dh gksrh gSA nwljs 'kCnksa esa] fdlh xqyke ns'k esa ØkfUr lkezkT;okn fojks/kh vkSj mifuos'kokn fojks/kh gksrh gSA* bl mfDr ls Li"V gS fd os lkeUrokn dks yf{kr  ugha djrs Fks] gkykafd ^lkeUrokn dh lekfIr* dks Hkh ØkfUr ds ,d ^cqfu;knh dke* ds :i esa is'k djrs FksA
gekjs ns'k esa vkt Hkh ØkfUr dh eafty ds ckjs esa ;g cgl tkjh gSA dqN ØkfUrdkjh lewg ^uo tuoknh ØkfUr* dks viuh eafty ekurs gSa rks dqN ^lektoknh ØkfUr* dksA ^uo tuoknh ØkfUr* dks ekuus okys ^lkeUrokn&lkezkT;okn&nyky ukSdj'kkg iwathokn* dks yf{kr djrs gSa rks ^lektoknh ØkfUr* dks ekuus okys ewyr% Hkkjrh; iwathokn dksA esjh le> esa ^uo tuoknh ØkfUr* dks gh Hkkjrh; ØkfUr dk rkRdkfyd y{; ekuk tkuk pkfg;sA
Hkxr flag us ØkfUr dks lQy gksus ds fy, ysfuu dh rjg rhu t:jh 'kÙks± crkbZ& 1- jktuSfrd&vkfFkZd ifjfLFkfr] 2- turk ds eu esa fonzksg dh Hkkouk vkSj 3- ,d ØkfUrdkjh ikVhZ] tks iwjh rjg izf'kf{kr gks vkSj ijh{kk ds le; turk dks usr`Ro iznku dj ldsA mudk ekuuk Fkk fd Hkkjr esa igyh 'kÙkZ rks ekStwn gS] ysfdu nwljh vkSj rhljh 'krZ vfUre :i esa viuh iwfrZ dh izrh{kk dj jgk gSA os rjg&rjg ds tu laxBuksa dk fuekZ.k dj ,oa igys ls LFkkfir laxBuksa esa ^ÝsD'kuy* dke dj turk ds fofHkUu fgLlksa esa fonzksg dh Hkkouk tkxuk pkgrs Fks vkSj ^is'ksoj ØkfUrdkfj;ksa* ls yS'k lgh ek;us esa dE;qfuLV ikVhZ dh LFkkiuk djuk pkgrs FksA os v/;;u o oSpkfjd la?k"kZ ij dkQh tksj nsrs Fks vkSj ,d ,slh ikVhZ dk fuekZ.k djuk pkgrs Fks ftldk oSpkfjd o jktuSfrd i{k lcls mUur gks vkSj ftlesa reke nfd;kuqlh o izfrfØ;koknh fopkj/kkjkvksa dks ijkLr djus dh {kerk gksA bl lUnHkZ esa mudh ;g mfDr dkQh egRoiw.kZ gS& ^bUdykc dh ryokj fopkjksa dh lku ij rst gksrh gSA* os tksj nsdj dgk djrs Fks fd ^,d ØkfUrdkjh lcls vf/kd rdZ esa fo'okl djrk gSA og dsoy rdZ vkSj rdZ esa gh fo'okl djrk gSA vkt dh ifjfLFkfr esa tc ØkfUrdkjh vkUnksyu dk oSpkfjd o lS)kfUrd i{k mruk etcwr ugha gS o mlesa ,d:irk dk Hkh vHkko gS] vkSj lkFk gh lkFk] tc usr`Ro o dk;ZdÙkkZ v/;;u&euu o oSpkfjd la?k"kZ ij tksj nsus ds ctk; T;knk ls T;knk O;ogkfjd o :Vhuh dkeksa esa gh O;Lr jgrs gSa] Hkxr flag dh ;g mfDr dkQh egRo j[krh gSA
Hkxr flag vkt gekjs chp ugha gSa] ysfdu muds mi;qZDr fopkj u dsoy gekjs chp dk;e gSa cfYd vkt dh ifjfLFkfr esa izklafxd Hkh gaSA Hkxr flag o muds lkfFk;ksa us ØkfUr dk tks fcxqy Qwadk Fkk] mldh izfr/ofu vkt Hkh lqukbZ iM+ jgh gSA Hkxr flag dh 'kgknr ds ckn ØkfUrdkjh laxzke [kRe ugha gqvk] og vkt Hkh Vs<s&es<s jkLrs ls xqtjrk gqvk tkjh gSA Hkxr flag us Bhd gh dgk Fkk& ^u rks geus bl yM+kbZ dh 'kq:vkr dh gS vkSj u gh ;g gels [kre gksxhA* ;g yM+kbZ rc rd tkjh jgsxh] tc rd ^vkneh }kjk vkneh dk* ,oa ^lkezkT;oknh jk"Vª }kjk detksj jk"Vªksa dk ^ 'kks"k.k o nksgu tkjh jgsxkA vkt t:jr bl ckr dh gS fd Hkxr flag ds ØkfUrdkjh fopkjksa dks vkRelkr~ fd;k tk;s vkSj mUgsa turk ds chp dkjxj rjhds ls ys tkdj HkkSfrd rkdr esa rCnhy fd;k tk;sA ;gh Hkxr flag o muds lkfFk;ksa ds izfr lPph J)kUtfy gksxhA

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